Wednesday, July 8, 2020

A Plan for Creating an Innovative Culture Coursework - 2750 Words

A Plan for Creating an Innovative Culture in Support of Evidence-based Project Implementation (Coursework Sample) Content: A Plan for Creating an Innovative Culture in Support of Evidence-based Project ImplementationNameInstitutionTable of Contents TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u  HYPERLINK \l "_Toc406064076" Abstract  PAGEREF _Toc406064076 \h 3 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc406064077" Introduction  PAGEREF _Toc406064077 \h 5 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc406064078" Description of the Scholarly Project and Planned Intervention  PAGEREF _Toc406064078 \h 7 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc406064079" Planned Implementation  PAGEREF _Toc406064079 \h 9 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc406064080" Identification  PAGEREF _Toc406064080 \h 9 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc406064081" Collaborative Approach  PAGEREF _Toc406064081 \h 9 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc406064082" Taking Action  PAGEREF _Toc406064082 \h 9 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc406064083" Organizational Structure Analysis of the Existing Leadership and Innovative Cultures  PAGEREF _Toc406064083 \h 10 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc406064084" Theoretical Framework (Health Beha vior Change)  PAGEREF _Toc406064084 \h 10 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc406064085" Needed Change, Towards the Development and Implementation of Mobile Application  PAGEREF _Toc406064085 \h 11 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc406064086" Barriers towards the Development and Use of Mobile Application  PAGEREF _Toc406064086 \h 12 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc406064087" Predicted Successes towards the Development and Use of Mobile Application  PAGEREF _Toc406064087 \h 13 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc406064088" Plans for Organizational Climate Change  PAGEREF _Toc406064088 \h 13 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc406064089" Conclusion  PAGEREF _Toc406064089 \h 14 HYPERLINK \l "_Toc406064090" References  PAGEREF _Toc406064090 \h 15AbstractWith the advancement in the technological innovations in the modern world, people continue to benefit in the way their quality of life is transforming in positive ways. Technology has facilitated convenience and effectiveness in communication. As technology continuou s to advance various sectors in the society, the medical field is increasingly reaping the many benefits the innovations are imparting in improving health care provision especially among the patients suffering from chronic illnesses (Lindsey et al., 2013). Researchers have identified that a majority of patients with chronic conditions face an increasing immense risks of their health deteriorating, owing to their non-adherence to proper treatment processes (Tatara et al., 2013). There is substantial medical evidence proving that non-adherence to treatment exposes Hispanic women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) to serious medical complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, peripheral neuropathy, and cardiovascular disease. Lack of insufficient knowledge about the disease and its medication is another contributory factor to the deterioration of health conditions among Hispanic women with T2DM. Low health literacy among patients with T2DM is associated with high chances of developing ret inopathy and less chances of controlling glycemic (West, 2012). Research have identified that majority of female Hispanic patients rely on their family and friends for their health information something which could lead to misinformation or confusion. This is in addition to their language barrier and unfavorable cultural beliefs that prevent many female patients from adhering to their treatment processes. In such a situation, there is need to adopt a method that would increase treatment adherence among Hispanic women with T2DM in Los Angeles. The use of mobile phone application has been identified as one of the most promising approach that could help in the situation. Different studies have found out that the method is effective owing to its ability to remind patients about their medications, besides encouraging wellness and self-care behaviors in addition to encouraging compliance with prescriptions (Thomas Wing, 2013). The use of mobile app is necessary for providing essential in formation vital for preventing the worsening of the health condition. A Plan for Creating an Innovative Culture in Support of Evidence-based Project ImplementationIntroductionFor a patient with chronic illness to be safe, it is advisable to adhere to the treatment process in order to safeguard the quality of life. Medical researches have shown that non-adherence T2DM patients increase their chances of developing other complicated conditions such as retinopathy, nephropathy, peripheral neuropathy, and cardiovascular diseases that could worsen their conditions to the level of causing death (Nundy, Dick Peek, 2014). However, various mobile web app can be used by Hispanic women with T2DM to increase their level of adherence to medication. Such mobile-based applications are used to provide various self- care management tips that encourage the patients to adhere to medical prescription and other necessary therapies that could help in the control of body weight, blood sugar, and blood pre ssure, which are some of the major contributory factors to T2DM (Quinn et al., 2011). Studies have indicated that non-adherence among the Hispanic women with T2DM is considerably high as compared to their male counterparts (Quinn et al., 2011). This is attributable to various reasons such as their lower socio-economic status where the costs of medication are high in the country, preventing many from accessing such treatment processes such as insulin therapy and maintaining constant visitation to medical facilities. Miscommunication is another major factor limiting the adherence of Hispanic women with T2DM to treatment processes. Their language barrier contribute to their lack of understanding various medication information leading to the misunderstanding of doctors instructions and poor decision making in adherence to treatment processes, especially in insulin therapy (Pyatak, Florindez, Weigensberg, 2013). Majority of Hispanic women have low health literacy due to their inability to read and understand medical information such as treatment instructions. This is associated with lesser chances of controlling glycemic and higher chances of developing retinopathy among T2DM patients. Low health literacy is exhibited among Hispanic women with T2DM through their over reliance on family and friends for such information. This could be dangerous as it is associated with misinformation and confusion that could result to poor decision-making pertaining to treatment adherence. Non-adherence is also promulgated by cultural beliefs among the Hispanic that diabetes reflects Gods punishment and that adherence to medication may not be successful in treating the condition. The use of mobile phone web application is considered a viable approach through which to increase the level of adherence to medical treatment processes among Hispanic women with T2DM. Nundy, Dick Peek (2014) confirms that the use of the technological innovation has the ability to increase medication adhere nce among TSDM patients by about 10%, improving the overall medical outcome. Studies have proven that the deterioration in health conditions among T2DM patients is greatly influenced by poor adherence to medical treatment processes and is associated with various health risks. Lack of health information about diabetes among Hispanic women with T2DM has emerged as a major factor that worsens their condition. Majority of them are not familiar with the basic skills of self-care management, leading to the deterioration of their health conditions (West, 2012). Lack of a cheaper mechanism to access doctors advice or keeping in touch with medical practitioners, further contribute to their exposure to increased risks associated with the disease. Mobile phone application offers a convenient platform where Hispanic women with T2DM can access important health information about their condition, besides giving them the opportunity to interact with doctors more often, to help contain their worseni ng condition (West, 2012). The technology also works to alert patients to communicate to them about what they are supposed to do at any time in relation to adhering to their treatment process. Hollern, (2012) asserts that mobile applications enable Hispanic women with T2DM to be encouraged to adhere to their monitoring routines by boosting self-monitoring efforts with applications such as alerts and reminders in addition to having considerable contact with health care team. The use of a mobile app such as CareSmart is necessary to increase adherence among Hispanic women with T2DM to comply with various treatment requirements that are necessary to improve the quality of their lives by protecting their health condition from deteriorating.Description of the Scholarly Project and Planned InterventionThere is a wide adoption of smartphone among the U.S population, with a variety of smartphones such as iPhone and Blackberry among others, being common among the consumers. The ability of sm artphones to support various functions has enabled the gadget to be adopted as an important tool in improving the adherence and behavior of patents towards meeting their treatment requirements. Access to substantial medical information specific for a particular patient is believed to have a positive influence towards the improvement of general health of the patient (Mira et al., 2014). By embracing the use of mobile phone in the medical field, communication and patient-doctor co-ordination would be enhanced within and outside the health care facility. Such a technological innovation is necessary for helping Hispanic women with T2DM to improve their adherence to treatment processes. Mobile web applications provides access to relevant information direct from the health care provider or facilitating access to suitable health information available on the internet, which...

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Why Are Flamingos the Color Pink

Flamingos are pink or orange or white depending on what they eat. Flamingos eat algae and crustaceans that contain pigments called carotenoids. For the most part, these pigments are found in the brine shrimp and blue-green algae that the birds eat. Enzymes in the liver break down the carotenoids into the pink and orange pigment molecules that are absorbed by fats deposited in the feathers, bill, and legs of the flamingos. Flamingos that eat mostly algae are more deeply colored than birds that eat the small animals that feed off of algae. So, you typically find deeply-colored pink and orange flamingos in the Caribbean, yet pale pink flamingos in drier habitats, like Lake Nakuru in Kenya. Captive flamingos are fed a special diet that includes prawns (a pigmented crustacean) or additives such as beta-carotene or canthaxanthin; otherwise, they would be white or pale pink. Young flamingos have gray plumage that changes color according to their diet. People eat foods containing carotenoids, too. The molecules act as antioxidants and are used to produce vitamin A. Examples of carotenoids humans eat include beta-carotene in carrots and lycopene in watermelon, but most people do not eat enough of these compounds to affect their skin color. People who take canthaxanthin pills for sunless tanning (artificial tans) experience skin color change. Unfortunately for them, the color is more of a bizarre orange than the natural tan from melanin! Source Hill, G. E.; Montgomerie, R.; Inouye, C. Y.; Dale, J. (June 1994). Influence of Dietary Carotenoids on Plasma and Plumage Colour in the House Finch: Intra- and Intersexual Variation. Functional Ecology. British Ecological Society. 8 (3): 343–350. doi:10.2307/2389827

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Waste in Macbeth Essay - 981 Words

Waste in Macbeth Throughout the play Macbeth, characters change and so do their relationships with other characters. Life is taken for granted, and tossed away as if it’s merely an old toy. Honour and potential of great men tarnished due to their greed and power hunger. The plot develops the idea that A.C Bradley proposes: The central feeling of a tragedy is one of waste. Macbeth is portrayed as a tragic hero, someone who has it all at first but decides to give it all up. Throughout the story the waste of potential, the waste of life and finally the waste of innocence are just some of the types of wastes that can be found, but they are enough to prove the theory. According to critic A.C. Bradley, the central feeling of a tragedy is†¦show more content†¦His potential is no more at that point as he has ruined any chance. â€Å"Ere we will eat our meal in fear and sleep† (Macbeth, Act III, scene ii) shows that Macbeth’s potential has gone from something great to having to be in fear all the time. But it is not only his potential that is lost, but Banquo’s as well when he takes his life. In this play one of the main purposes of Banquos character is to act as a contrast to the character of Macbeth. Banquo is brave and noble - characteristics that Macbeth arguably doesnt. The most evident type of waste in the play is the waste of life. Life is so carelessly thrown away by Macbeth and shows that it has no meaning to him and he takes it at disposal. â€Å"The wine of life is drawn, and the mere lees, Is left this vault to brag of.† (Macbeth, Act II, scene iii) is a quote that symbolizes life has no real meaning and can therefore be carelessly wasted. His humanness gets lost because of his power hunger and it’s because of the waste of life throughout the play, that the play becomes one of tragedy and an overall feeling of waste. The following quote, â€Å"I will not yield To kiss the ground before young Malcolms feet,† (Macbet h, Act V, scene viii) shows that he is even willing to waste his own life because of his legacy and prideShow MoreRelatedThe Tragedy Of Macbeth By William Shakespeare1023 Words   |  5 PagesTragedy of Macbeth. The Tragedy of Macbeth was a turn from glory to tragedy. A story of a true tragic hero. Macbeth is a brave soldier in a war for Scotland. A tale of a great soilder that was highly praise in his kingdom turn to a tragic murderous sinful king. Macbeth kill his friends and his king to take the throne and power to fulfill a witches prophet .The focus of Macbeth’s tragic story is self ambition,his unrelentless guilt, greediness , and poor judgement. 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Right after Macbeth murders Duncan, he says â€Å"Now o er the one half-world / Nature seems dead, and wicked dreams abuse / The curtainRead MoreMacbeth Ambitions967 Words   |  4 Pagesdo not even believe that Macbeth really had any ambition of his own. I do not think his ambition was not Macbeth’s greatest weakness but more is gullibility and being able to be swayed into the directions of others. In the story of Macbeth of Macbeths miss fortune is caused by first the prophecy of the witches and secondly of the discouragement of his wife constantly degrading him causing him to prove his self willing and able. Also with the swaying of others making Macbeth feel he needed these promotionsRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Macbeth s Fate823 Words   |  4 PagesNiraj Pant 18 April 2015 Period 3 Tumbarello Macbeth’s Fate Was Macbeth’s fate chained to the prophecy that is destiny or did he have free will? 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Events can also portray theRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Macbeth Essay1406 Words   |  6 PagesMacbeth Essay Since the beginning of time people looked up to the stars asking Gods their fate. Fate is a belief, that there is a set path for an event that is both unavoidable and inevitable, that there is a fixed natural order to the cosmos. In the play Macbeth by William Shakespeare, viewers can observe fate or (prophecy) playing a major role. William Shakespeare was born April 1564 and died May 1616, during his life Shakespeare wrote 37 plays, and 157 sonnets, Shakespeare is also knownRead MoreEssay on The Witches Play the Greatest Part in Macbeth’s Downfall 1099 Words   |  5 PagesThe witches are the first characters we see in the play in Act one Scene one- A prologue of evil. They plan to meet Macbeth when the fighting has finished. â€Å"When the hurly Burley’s done† From the very beginning of the play the witches are planning to give Macbeth the news of his future and so lead to his downfall. They speak to each other about their next action, to meet with Macbeth. The setting in which Shakespeare first presents the witches is On the Moor with thunder and lightening in the backgroundRead MoreHamlet and Macbeth by William Shakespeare810 Words   |  3 PagesHamlet, Macbeth, and Richard III. The length of each play can alter the feeling of being apart of the play for the reader. By far Hamlet has the greatest length of the three, followed by Richard III and then by Macbeth. Despite all three plays being enjoyable to read, the mere length difference of Hamlet or Macbeth or Richard III makes for a more enjoyable and relatable read. Hamlet as a whole is easier to relate to because we get to know and follow Hamlet much longer than Macbeth or Richard

Macroeconomic Indicators on Stock Market â€Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: What Is The Impact Of Macroeconomic Factors On The Stock Market? Answer: Introducation For investors entering the stock market, assessing the financial statements of companies is not enough. There are several other macroeconomic factors that also influence the prices of stocks. These factors affect the stock market mainly via different channels and hitting on the supply and demand chains. Some of these factors include inflation, GDP growth rate, demographic changes or also monetary policies of the central bank of countries. Just like all other goods and services the theory of demand and supply also applies for stock markets. As we know, according to the theory of demand, , a fall in demand of a particular good shall decrease its price whereas an increase in demand shall increase it price (Lipsey et al., 2011). Similarly, when the supply of a good increase, its price falls whereas, a decrease in supply would increase its price. In the stock market, the same law applies. When demand for stocks increase, its price increases and vice versa whereas when supply of stocks fall its price increases and vice versa. As we see below, in the first diagram we see the shift in demand cause, which raises/lowers the price level of stocks. In the second diagram, shifts in the supply curve result in rise or fall in price. Thus in reality when a company lands up with low earnings the demand for their stock may go down which changes the equilibrium between buyers and sellers. This causes the future buyers to demand for a discount in stock price and hence, many sellers are motivated to accommodate. As more sellers exceed the number of buyers, price falls. The factors which affect the equilibrium of demand and supply are many among different macroeconomic factors. We shall discuss further about each of such factors. Demographic trends or transition also turn out to be a factor which can have major impact on stock markets. In the 21st century, one of the major demographic phenomenons is population aging. This aging of the population is occurring as due to high life expectancy and low fertility rates, the proportion of the population aged 65 and above is continuously increasing. The major proportion of the working age population which is moving towards retirement constituted of the percentage investing the most on stock markets. As these persons retire, the overall demand for stocks will fall and cause changes in the equilibrium. The consequences of demographic transition is still under research and studied by several analysts and economists. Many researchers also reported that population aging will not have significant effects on the financial markets (Bakshi et al., 2000). Gross domestic product which is the total amount of final goods and services produced in an economy may also affect the stock market, but its effects are still debatable among economists. GDP or GDP growth rate is also a measure of a countrys economic performance (Samuelson et al, 2000). Theoretically it is expected that a country which is healthy and growing, hence, with higher GDP is expected to cause higher demands in the stock market and also higher supplies, and with better stock market returns. At such situations when the country is growing companies or businesses also enjoy higher earnings and profits which attract more investors. On the other hand, lower GDP values may also have a negative impact on the stock market considering the aggregate demand of the economy falls. This theory is based on the fact that GDP is the aggregate of consumption, investments, government consumption and net exports. Thus any acceleration in these factors shall also have a positive impact on corpo rate sales. Higher earnings of corporate will lead to a higher earnings per share (EPS) which will translate into higher market returns (Levine et al, 2000). Though theory says this, reality is seen to be different in the short run at least. For instance if we consider the 2008 Financial crisis, we saw the stock market returns fell by 40 to 60% but that was not translated into a fall in GDP by 50%. But the theory is more justified in the longer run, where we see that many companies like United States have seen a rising trend in the stock market returns since 50 years or so which was because the country also saw higher levels of GDP and rising economic growth over the same period. The relationship between growth rates and stock markets are still found to ambiguous and still researched upon. Inflation is another factor which also has its effects on stock markets. It is the rate at which prices of goods and services rise over a period. Hence, higher rates of inflation are linked with higher costs of producing goods and services and in such a situation the company faces a cost constraint where it has to produce less and also lay off workers. At these situations, investors also perceive companies to hold back on spending which gives a negative outlook to investors and also the demand for the stocks fall. Thus, with higher costs there is also a fall in revenue, resulting inflation to have adverse effects on the stock market. When the economy faces the threat of an escalating inflation, the central bank of the country tries to control it through interest rates. It raises interest rates and expects investors to allocate their cash in fixed income instruments and hence, driving away excess liquidity from the system. Less liquidity in the system implies less speculative demand for goods and services which shall slow down the rise in prices. The rise in interest rates shall attract investors because of higher risk free return which is bearish for the stock market, as it reduces demand and hence reduces stock prices. It also happens that when higher inflation is expected, the uncertainty tends to increase the risk premium leading to higher expected returns from the stock markets (Feldstein, 2000). The opposite of inflation is deflation when prices fall. It may be thought that deflation may not be a problem for stock markets, but what happens is the opposite. Deflation acts as an indicator representing a weak economy and hence, drives away investors from investing in stocks. It implies companies earning smaller amount of profits, leading them t shrink as it lays off workers, reduces employee wages, cut on production costs or may even close production facilities. The prices of equity fall as people sell off investments which do not offer good returns anymore. As we saw above, in times of high inflation or deflation, the central bank steps forward and use various monetary or fiscal instruments to siphon off liquidity from the system. At these situations the central bank opts for various monetary and fiscal policies which may be expansionary or contractionary in nature. Expansionary policies of the central bank are when it injects money into the system whereas the opposite holds for contractionary policy. Fiscal expansionary policy leads to expansion of aggregate demand and consumer spending as with higher government expenditures and with tax cuts the liquidity in the system is increased (Mankiw, 2015). This increased aggregate demand shall increase consumption and investment which is translated as higher earnings for companies leading to higher EPS and thus, greater demand in the stock market (Duffy et al, 2013). On the other hand, expansionary monetary policy occurs when financial conditions are improved instead of demand. As we mentioned before, just like when central bank increases interest rates which leads to a fall in demand in the stock market, a decrease in interest rates pumps up profits as demand increases and leads to rise in prices. This happens in case of expansionary monetary policy, which improves the balance sheet of companies. Thus we saw, how via different channels of macroeconomic factors, hits the supply and demand of stock markets which brings changes in the equilibrium in the market and what follows is a fall or rise in price. A new investor in the market should investigate the current situation of the economy as well as expectations of changes in several macroeconomic factors which shall indirectly affect stock markets. References Duffy, D, Filis, G Chatziantoniou, I. (2013). Stock market response to monetary and fiscal policy shocks, JEL Bakshi, G Chen, Z. (2000). Baby boom, Population aging and capital markets. The journal of business. Feldstein, M. (2000). Inflation and the stock market, [Accessed 12th May 2017] Levine, R Zervos, S. (2000). Stock markets, banks and economic growth. The American economic review. Samuelson, P. Nordhaus, W. (2010). Economics. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill Mankiw, G. (2015). Macroeconomics. New York: Worth publishers Lipsey, R. Chrystal, A. (2011). Economics. New Delhi : Oxford

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

One nation under law

Cherokee Indian case revealed the weaknesses of the American Supreme Court as the provisions were not in line with the American constitution. In 1832, the US Supreme Court exercised it powers in enforcing rights of the Native Americans against the state.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on One nation under law specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The Supreme Court had ruled before that it lacked the mandate in ruling over the Indian nation. Initially, the court rejected claims that the native tribes had self-governance and considered independent. It was a struggle of legal and political status of the native tribes in America. The weaknesses of the American court system became realized when it rejected the Cherokee claims that they were independent just like other sovereign federal states around. The Supreme Court rejected this claim in the first case and latter developed a different theory in the second case ( The Supreme Court, n. d). The Supreme Court did not speak and stand for the national values and the inspirations of the people as spelt by the constitution. It worked in favor of one side hence showed the weakness it has. John marshal avoided the same case earlier in his career when he gave his opinion on the relationship between the United States and Indian nations. According to him, the federal states in America inherited the rights from its colonial master who was Britain and became independent with those rights. He believed that US should give same rights to the Indian nations with exclusion of the European political powers. He argued his case that the Indian nations should have all other rights but not to posses land and have political dominion over their laws. John marshal avoided the case by acknowledging exercising conquest, which may lead to dominion of political power. However, his take was that the case should not be for the state but in the federal government. The court ruled in favor of Cherokee that it was a community on its own and could govern itself without involving Georgia.Advertising Looking for critical writing on political sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It gave Cherokee autonomy of governing itself as an independent community to implement its governance structure. The doctrine of the court was that only the state has the mandate of reviewing land issues related to Indian nation unlike in the case of Georgia. The weakness in the court system realized during this period was when Georgia refused to enforce and comply with the court as it had independent with powers. The relocation of the Cherokees was absolute misuse of powers and court had jurisdiction. Different states exercise their powers and have the guaranteed independence that gives them freedom to do all they can within their mandate. The courts ruling giving sovereignty to a tribal group of indigenous community with in a state is a weakness of the state. The constitution guarantees rights to individuals and they are limited to certain degree. Many states as well as individuals like to exercise power on their own capacity but it has to have its limitations in line with the constitution. America is one nation under law hence the subdivision divides the country which might not be important at long run. As the supreme gave sovereignty to the Indian nation and gave the state the powers to negotiate on the Indian lands, it was trying to protect the interest of a small group at the expense of the federal state, as Georgia had to comply and wait for the new governor to effect the court decisions. Reference The Supreme Court. (n. d). One Nation under Law. Retrieved from: This critical writing on One nation under law was written and submitted by user Spencer L. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Monday, March 16, 2020

Corporate Governance Assignment Essays

Corporate Governance Assignment Essays Corporate Governance Assignment Essay Corporate Governance Assignment Essay The company host an annual general meeting to which all stakeholders are given due notice Of. Also, in accordance with the banks by-laws, three directors retire from the board annually and may offer themselves for re- election at the banks annual general meeting. The company also issues an annual report and quarterly financial statements to stakeholders and the general public. Pursuant to the mandate to ensure that the interests of the various stakeholders are considered the board of directors meets, at a minimum, on a quarterly basis while the Executive Sub-committee of the Board, comprising seven Board members, meets monthly for the remaining months. (Republic Bank (Guyana) Limited 2014) 3. 4. Responsibility 3: To ensure compliance with the law The board of directors of Republic Bank (Guyana) Limited is committed to proper standards of corporate governance and maintaining these standards at the highest level. Continuous monitoring of the banks systems and procedures is done to ensure that standards are in keeping with the best practice as determined by the principles of corporate governance. The bank is also guided by the Recommendations for a Code of Corporate Governance issued by the Guyana Securities Council, and Supervision Guideline No. 8 on Corporate Governance issued by the Bank of Guyana under the authority of the Financial Institutions Act 1995. In addition the Bank is compliant with Supervision Guideline 10 on the public Disclosure of Information. (Republic Bank (Guyana) Limited 2014) 3. 5. Responsibility 4: To review and guide corporate strategy As stated in the banks Annual report of 2014 Of critical importance to the board of directors is the responsibility to approve and view the banks strategic plan and within this context, to approve annual budgets, including capital expenditure. The board retains the responsibility for reviewing and approving credit applications above a specified limit. In keeping with the expectation of the board of directors the performance of each Management Officer is also assessed against all key performance areas which among other things may include financial targets. The performance of all management officers is reviewed by the Board of Directors on an annual basis. Additionally, taking into account the increasing need for risk assessment, the board of directors has established a risk management committee, known as the other risks committee. 3. 6. Responsibility 5: To select, compensate, and monitor key executives As stated in the annual report of 2014, the managing director and management team are appointed by the board of directors. Each management officer has a written mandate and is required to execute the stated functions as outlined therein. The managing directors responsibilities and authorities are documented and approved by the board of directors. 3. 7. Responsibility 6: To monitor governance practices Monitoring of governance practice involves continuous review of the internal structure of the company, monitoring and disclosure of corporate governance practices on a regular basis, self-assessment by boards oftener performance as well as performance reviews of individual board members and the CEO/ Chairman. COED 2004) At Republic Bank (Guyana) Limited, the board of directors approves the organizational structure for the Bank which ensures a reporting structure with prudent and effective controls. The board of director s comprises nine directors including one executive director. Of the eight non-executive directors, five are independent. Republic Bank (Guyana) Limited adheres to the recommendations of the Supervision Guideline No. 8 on Corporate Governance issued by the Bank of Guyana under the authority of the Financial Institutions Act 1995 regarding its board structure. The board is comprised of an executive director and a majority of independent directors. Republic Bank (Guyana) Limited 2014) Further, as suggested in the COED principles of Corporate Governance 2004, with single tier board systems, the objectivity of the board and its independence from management may be strengthened by the separation of the role of chief executive and chairman, Republic Bank (Guyana) Limited chairman is a non-executive director. The managing director of Bank (Guyana) Limited is the only executive director on the board. Additionally, in the annual report of the bank a statement of the banks corporate governance practice is made public. 3. 8. Responsibility 7: To ensure integrity of accounting and financial systems Several committees have been set up by Republic Bank (Guyana) Limited to ensure integrity of accounting and financial systems. These committees are: 3. 8. 1. The audit committee The audit committee of the board meets at least quarterly to review the ann.s system of internal control, financial reporting process, audit and examination process, and compliance with Statutory and regulatory laws. When necessary, the Audit Committee is responsible for reviewing the independence, competence and qualifications of the External Auditors. 3. 8. 2. The compensation committee The compensation, which meets at minimum once per year, is responsible for formalizing the banks remuneration policy for staff. 38. 3. The other risks The other risks committee, which meets quarterly, is responsible for reviewing policies and procedures and ensuring that the Bank is not exposed o unnecessary risks with respect to its operations. 3. 9. Responsibility 8: Corporate Social Responsibility Every board has a duty to formulate the companys strategy, recognizing the risks involved, and part of that process involves determining how the company will behave, in other words, establishing how social responsibility will be exercised throughout the organization. (Trickier 2012, p. 235) At Republic Bank (Guyana) Limited the need to be a good corporate citizen and perform its corporate social responsibility is understood and mirrored in the companys vision which establishes the bank wishes to set a standard of excellence for social responsibility. Corporate social responsibility activities of Republic Bank (Guyana) Limited are conducted under its power to make a difference program. The Power to Make a Difference programmer aims to enhance the quality of life of disadvantaged persons; support healthcare programmed and disability awareness initiatives; provide opportunities for young people to realize their truest potential through sport, education and the arts; build community spirit and, in essence, help to correct some of society ills. (Republic Bank (Guyana) Limited 2014) 4. Recommendations It was found that Republic Bank (Guyana) Limited in its governance aims to be a good corporate citizen by complying with rules and regulation stipulated at a national level and also meeting international standards of corporate governance. However, there are areas that could stand improvement and as such the following recommendations are made: 1 ) The chairman of the board of directors should be an independent non-executive director.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

An In Depth Interview Psychology Essay

An In Depth Interview Psychology Essay What is research. When asked, most people would answer questionnaires or surveys. These kinds of research people more familiar with are quantitative research. However, in this article, the main focus is on qualitative research, which is widely used in academic and professional areas (Holliday, 2002). So, what is quantitative research? Mason (2002:1) believes that: â€Å"Through qualitative research we can explore a wide array of dimensions of the social world, including the texture and weave of everyday life, the understanding, experiences and imagining of our research participants, the ways that social processes, institutions, discourses or relationship work, and the significance of the meaning that they generate.† Therefore, from this perspective, it could be derived that for qualitative research, pure statistic and numerical data are not sufficient. It needs more description evidence to discover the subjective qualities that govern human behaviours (Holliday, 2002). The so called ‘thick description’, which could be collected through interview, observation or other methods, is the basis for qualitative researchers to understand and explore the social world(Draper, 2004). Due to the complexity of modern society, there are many problems emerged when conducting qualitative researches, for instance, the ethical dilemmas. In order to get a more critical view of qualitative research, the distinction between qualitative research and quantitative research will be highlighted first. Then two typical qualitative research methods, in-depth interview and participate observation, will be critically examined. Followed by that, three examples will be used to further illustrate the challenges of qualitative research. In the end, a conclusion regarding the merits and demerits of qualitative research will be drawn. Two paradigms Primarily, the philosophical basis for qualitative research and quantitative research are different. Both Holliday (2002) and Dra per (2004) state that quantitative research believes that by using right quantitative measurements people could reveal objective facts, while qualitative research rooted in interpretive tradition, which focus on exploring the underlying meanings of social phenomena. As a result, qualitative and quantitative research differ in their analytical process, research design, methods of collecting data and the approach to analyse and interpret data(Draper, 2004). Rather than by using a deductive process, qualitative research prefers inductive procedure (Gephart, 2004). Therefore, qualitative research provides extra opportunities for researchers to discover insight views and get new understandings of social phenomena (Willig, 2008). Also, Gephart (2004) states that the ‘thick description’ provided by qualitative research enriches the basis for understanding the social world. However, qualitative research also has its own limitations. As Willig (2008) points out that qualitative research do not ensure certainty, the objectivity of researcher is not realistic and the results are not predictive, since qualitative studies always carry out with small sample size but in depth. Moreover, similar qualitative studies due to the different use of methods are impossible to compare or integrate (Willig, 2008). As a consequence, Draper (2004) suggests, although qualitative and quantitative researches are different from their ontological foundation, they could complement each other. In addition, recent studies (Bryman, 2006; Kinn and Curzio, 2005; Sherman and Strang, 2004) show that there is a growth trend of combining these two methods together, in spite of the continuation of debate about integrating qualitative and quantitative methods. After examining the merits and demerits of qualitative research, it is the time to discuss the two dominant methods used in qualitative research, in-depth interview and participant observation.